Lower Silesian Voivodeship

Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct,.mw-parser-output .geo-inline-hidden{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}51°07′N 17°02′E / 51.117°N 17.033°E / 51.117; 17.033
Voivodeship of Poland

.mw-parser-output .hatnote{font-style:italic}.mw-parser-output div.hatnote{padding-left:1.6em;margin-bottom:0.5em}.mw-parser-output .hatnote i{font-style:normal}.mw-parser-output .hatnote+link+.hatnote{margin-top:-0.5em}

Voivodeship in Poland

.mw-parser-output .infobox-subbox{padding:0;border:none;margin:-3px;width:auto;min-width:100%;font-size:100%;clear:none;float:none;background-color:transparent}.mw-parser-output .infobox-3cols-child{margin:auto}.mw-parser-output .infobox .navbar{font-size:100%}body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .infobox-header,body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .infobox-subheader,body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .infobox-above,body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .infobox-title,body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .infobox-image,body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .infobox-full-data,body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .infobox-below{text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement{width:23em;border-collapse:collapse;line-height:1.2em}.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement td,.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement th{border-top:1px solid #a2a9b1;padding:0.4em 0.6em 0.4em 0.6em}.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement .mergedtoprow .infobox-full-data,.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement .mergedtoprow .infobox-header,.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement .mergedtoprow .infobox-data,.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement .mergedtoprow .infobox-label,.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement .mergedtoprow .infobox-below{border-top:1px solid #a2a9b1;padding:0.4em 0.6em 0.2em 0.6em}.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement .mergedrow .infobox-full-data,.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement .mergedrow .infobox-data,.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement .mergedrow .infobox-label{border:0;padding:0 0.6em 0.2em 0.6em}.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement .mergedbottomrow .infobox-full-data,.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement .mergedbottomrow .infobox-data,.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement .mergedbottomrow .infobox-label{border-top:0;border-bottom:1px solid #a2a9b1;padding:0 0.6em 0.4em 0.6em}.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement .maptable{border:0;padding:0}.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement .infobox-header,.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement .infobox-below{text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement .infobox-above{font-size:125%;line-height:1.3em}.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement .infobox-subheader{background-color:#cddeff;font-weight:bold}.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement-native{font-weight:normal;padding-top:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement-other-name{font-size:78%}.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement-official{font-weight:bold}.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement-caption{padding:0.3em 0 0 0}.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement-caption-link{padding:0.2em 0}.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement-nickname{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement-fn{font-weight:normal;display:inline}

Lower Silesian Voivodeship
Województwo dolnośląskie
.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement-cols{text-align:center;display:table;width:100%}.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement-cols-row{display:table-row}.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement-cols-cell{display:table-cell;vertical-align:middle}.mw-parser-output .ib-settlement-cols-cellt{display:table-cell;vertical-align:top}

Location within Poland

Location within Poland
Division into counties

Division into counties
Coordinates (Wrocław): .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct,.mw-parser-output .geo-inline-hidden{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}51°07′N 17°02′E / 51.117°N 17.033°E / 51.117; 17.033
Country Poland
Capital Wrocław
Counties*
Government

 • Voivode Maciej Awiżeń (pl) (PO)
 • Marshal Cezary Przybylski (pl) (BS)
 • EP Lower Silesian and Opole
Area

 • Total 19,946.74 km2 (7,701.48 sq mi)
Population

 (2019-06-30[1])
 • Total 2,899,986
 • Density 150/km2 (380/sq mi)
 • Urban

1,986,877
 • Rural

913,109
GDP

 • Total €48.419 billion
 • Per capita €16,900
ISO 3166 code PL-02
Vehicle registration D
HDI (2021) 0.889[3]
html.skin-theme-clientpref-night .mw-parser-output div:not(.notheme)>.tmp-color,html.skin-theme-clientpref-night .mw-parser-output p>.tmp-color,html.skin-theme-clientpref-night .mw-parser-output table:not(.notheme) .tmp-color{color:inherit!important}@media(prefers-color-scheme:dark){html.skin-theme-clientpref-os .mw-parser-output div:not(.notheme)>.tmp-color,html.skin-theme-clientpref-os .mw-parser-output p>.tmp-color,html.skin-theme-clientpref-os .mw-parser-output table:not(.notheme) .tmp-color{color:inherit!important}}very high · 2nd
Website www.umwd.dolnyslask.pl
  • Further divided into 169 gminas

Historical regions in present-day Lower Silesian Voivodeship and in Poland

Lower Silesian Voivodeship, or Lower Silesia Province[4] (Polish: Województwo dolnośląskie, [vɔjɛˈvut͡stfɔ dɔlnɔˈɕlɔw̃skjɛ] ), in southwestern Poland, is one of the 16 voivodeships (provinces) into which Poland is divided. The voivodeship was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Wrocław, Legnica, Wałbrzych and Jelenia Góra Voivodeships, following the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. It covers an area of 19,946 square kilometres (7,701 sq mi), and as of 2019[update] has a total population of 2,899,986.[citation needed]

It is one of the wealthiest provinces in Poland as natural resources such as copper, brown coal and rock materials are widely present.[5]

Its capital and largest city is Wrocław, situated on the Oder River. The voivodeship is host to many castles and palaces. For this reason tourism is a large part of this region’s economy.

History[edit]

In the past 1,200 years, the region has been part of Great Moravia, the Medieval Kingdom of Poland, the Crown of Bohemia, Habsburg monarchy (Austria), Prussia, the German Empire, and modern Poland after 1945.

Silesian tribes settled the lands at the end of the first millennium after the Migration Period. During the period of Germania Slavica, the region became part of Great Moravia under Svatopluk I of Moravia. Mieszko I brought the various existing Silesian duchies under the rule of the Piast dynasty and they became the Duchy of Silesia. It was again divided into small realms reigned by Silesian branches of Piast princes after the testament of Bolesław III Wrymouth in 1138. With the Ostsiedlung, the cultural and ethnic Germanic influence grew with an influx of immigrants from the German-speaking areas of the Holy Roman Empire, of which Silesia was a direct part until the 1330s when it was subjugated to the Kingdom of Bohemia, then together with it became part of the Habsburg monarchy (1526), then the Kingdom of Prussia (1742/44), and subsequently the German Empire (1871). In 1945, Lower Silesia was made part of Poland as agreed at the post-war Potsdam Conference. As a consequence, Lower Silesia suffered a nearly total loss of its pre-war population between 1945 and 1950. Polish citizens dispossessed by the Soviets were then settled in the now emptied lands.[6]

Lower Silesia was, during the early medieval era, one of Poland’s cultural centers. The Book of Henryków (1273), which contains the earliest known sentence written in the Polish language, as well as a document which contains the oldest printed text in Polish, were both created within it.[7] Złotoryja, Poland’s first town, was granted municipal privileges according to German Magdeburg rights by Henry the Bearded. Over the centuries, Lower Silesia has experienced several epochal events such as the Protestant Reformation, the Silesian Wars, industrialisation and the two World Wars.

Geography[edit]

Although much of the region is relatively low-lying, Lower Silesia includes the Sudeten Foreland, as well as part of the Sudetes mountain range, that runs along the Polish/Czech border. Ski resorts in the Lower Silesian Voivodeship include Karpacz and Szklarska Poręba in the Karkonosze mountains.

The voivodeship has a number of mineral springs and is host to a large number of spa towns. The highest point in the voivodeship is Mount Śnieżka (1603 m above sea level) while the lowest point is located in the Oder River Valley (69 m above sea level).[8]

Lower Silesian Voivodeship is bordered by Lubusz Voivodeship to the north-west, Greater Poland Voivodeship to the north-east, Opole Voivodeship to the south-east, the Czech Republic (Hradec Králové Region, Liberec Region, Olomouc Region and Pardubice Region) to the south, and Germany (Saxony) to the west.

Transport[edit]

Wrocław Airport serves as an international and domestic airport.

Wrocław Główny is the largest railway station in Poland, serving an average of 21.2 million passengers annually. It offers the domestic and international connections of various carriers.

The A4 motorway,[9] A8 motorway, A18 motorway and S3 Expressway, S5 Expressway, S8 Expressway also run through the voivodeship.

Tourism[edit]

Wrocław Town Hall
Śnieżka – the highest peak of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship

Tourism is important for Lower Silesian Voivodeship. There are 99 castles and hundreds of palaces. A lot are located Jelenia Góra Valley.

Wrocław being the largest city in the voivodeship has many sights and attractions, including the Market Square, the Cathedral Island and Wrocław’s dwarfs. The Festival of Good Beer is held every year of June.

The annual international Chopin Festival is held in the Fryderyk Chopin Theatre in the town of Duszniki-Zdrój. Other major attraction of the town is the Museum of Papermaking, established in a 17th-century paper mill.

Śnieżka is the highest peak of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship and the whole of the Sudetes.

Protected areas[edit]

Mount Ślęża
“Hell” on Szczeliniec Wielki (Table Mountains National Park)
Snowy Pits
Bear’s Cave
Project Riese, Owl Mountains

Protected areas in Lower Silesian Voivodeship:

and many areas of Natura 2000 network.

Tourist routes[edit]

Economy[edit]

Bielany Avenue (pl. Aleja Bielany) – the largest shopping center in Poland

The gross domestic product (GDP) of the province was 41.1 billion euro in 2018, accounting for 8.3% of the Polish economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was €23,400 or 78% of the EU27 average in the same year. The GDP per employee was 85% of the EU average. Lower Silesia Voivodeship is the province with the second highest GDP per capita in Poland.[11]

GDP per capita in Lower Silesian Voivodeship and Poland
Lower Silesian Voivodeship GDP per capita Poland GDP per capita
2000 $10 440 (+2.8%) 2000 $10 140 (+4.0%)
2005 $13 060 (+4.9%) 2005 $12 600 (+3.5%)
2006 $13 700 (+7.3%) 2006 $13 020 (+6.2%)
2007 $14 980 (+9.5%) 2007 $13 760 (+6.5%)
2008 $16 030 (+7.2%) 2008 $14 450 (+5.0%)
2009 $16 350 (+2.0%) 2009 $14 720 (+1.9%)

Cities and towns[edit]

Wrocław
Jelenia Góra
Głogów
Kłodzko

The voivodeship contains 8 cities and 83 towns. The cities, governed by a city mayor (Polish: prezydent miasta), are listed below in descending order of population (as of 2019):[1]

Cities[edit]

.mw-parser-output .div-col{margin-top:0.3em;column-width:30em}.mw-parser-output .div-col-small{font-size:90%}.mw-parser-output .div-col-rules{column-rule:1px solid #aaa}.mw-parser-output .div-col dl,.mw-parser-output .div-col ol,.mw-parser-output .div-col ul{margin-top:0}.mw-parser-output .div-col li,.mw-parser-output .div-col dd{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}

  1. Wrocław (674,132)
  2. Wałbrzych city county (111,896)
  3. Legnica city county (99,486)
  4. Jelenia Góra city county (79,200)
  5. Lubin (72,428)
  6. Głogów (66,120)
  7. Świdnica (56.803)
  8. Bolesławiec (38,852)

Towns[edit]

  1. Oleśnica (37,169)
  2. Dzierżoniów (33,239)
  3. Oława (33,029)
  4. Zgorzelec (30,374)
  5. Bielawa (29,971)
  6. Kłodzko (26,845)
  7. Jawor (22,890)
  8. Świebodzice (22,793)
  9. Polkowice (22,480)
  10. Nowa Ruda (22,067)
  11. Lubań (21,087)
  12. Kamienna Góra (19,010)
  13. Bogatynia (17,436)
  14. Strzegom (16,106)
  15. Jelcz-Laskowice (15,803)
  16. Złotoryja (15,564)
  17. Boguszów-Gorce (15,368)
  18. Ząbkowice Śląskie (15,004)
  19. Chojnów (13,355)
  20. Trzebnica (13,331)
  21. Brzeg Dolny (12,511)
  22. Strzelin (12,460)
  23. Wołów (12,373)
  24. Góra (11,797)
  25. Milicz (11,304)
  26. Kowary (10,869)
  27. Syców (10,397)
  28. Bystrzyca Kłodzka (10,134)
  29. Kudowa-Zdrój (9,892)
  30. Środa Śląska (9,516)
  31. Oborniki Śląskie (9,099)
  32. Lwówek Śląski (8,869)
  33. Ziębice (8,708)
  34. Siechnice (8,113)
  35. Chocianów (7,892)
  36. Pieszyce (7,123)
  37. Kąty Wrocławskie (6,994)
  38. Sobótka (6,981)
  39. Żarów (6,719)
  40. Twardogóra (6,692)
  41. Gryfów Śląski (6,636)
  42. Szklarska Poręba (6,557)
  43. Żmigród (6,435)
  44. Piława Górna (6,412)
  45. Głuszyca (6,361)
  46. Polanica-Zdrój (6,324)
  47. Piechowice (6,194)
  48. Przemków (6,107)
  49. Lubawka (6,028)
  50. Pieńsk (5,828)
  51. Stronie Śląskie (5,709)
  52. Szczawno-Zdrój (5,608)
  53. Ścinawa (5,582)
  54. Lądek-Zdrój (5,572)
  55. Szczytna (5,141)
  56. Jaworzyna Śląska (5,124)
  57. Bolków (4,990)
  58. Bierutów (4,867)
  59. Jedlina-Zdrój (4,828)
  60. Karpacz (4,593)
  61. Duszniki-Zdrój (4,584)
  62. Leśna (4,439)
  63. Olszyna (4,348)
  64. Nowogrodziec (4,243)
  65. Zawidów (4,180)
  66. Świeradów-Zdrój (4,147)
  67. Mieroszów (4,070)
  68. Mirsk (3,886)
  69. Wojcieszów (3,668)
  70. Prochowice (3,602)
  71. Niemcza (2,965)
  72. Węgliniec (2,846)
  73. Złoty Stok (2,758)
  74. Wąsosz (2,662)
  75. Międzylesie (2,575)
  76. Bardo (2,562)
  77. Radków (2,406)
  78. Międzybórz (2,341)
  79. Świerzawa (2,286)
  80. Prusice (2,243)
  81. Wiązów (2,241)
  82. Lubomierz (1,979)
  83. Wleń (1,759)

Administrative division[edit]

Map of the powiats (counties)
The Skull Chapel in Kudowa
The Church of Peace in Świdnica is a UNESCO World Heritage Site

Lower Silesian Voivodeship is divided into 30 counties (powiaty), four of which are city counties. These are further divided into 169 gminy.

Cistercian Lubiąż Abbey

Lower Silesia is divided into three additional delegation districts governed by the provincial government, with Wrocław serving as the capital of the administrative region:[12]

800-year old Vang Stave Church in Karpacz
Abbey of the Order of Saint Benedict in Krzeszów
Sobieski Castle in Oława

The counties are listed in the following table (ordering within categories is by decreasing population).

English and
Polish names
Area
(km2)
Population
(2019)
Seat Other towns Total
gminas
City counties
Wrocław 293 641,607 1
Wałbrzych 84.70 111,896 1
Legnica 56.29 99,486 1
Jelenia Góra 109.22 79,200 1
Land counties
Kłodzko County
powiat kłodzki
1643.37 158,600 Kłodzko Nowa Ruda, Bystrzyca Kłodzka, Kudowa-Zdrój, Polanica-Zdrój, Stronie Śląskie, Lądek-Zdrój, Szczytna, Duszniki-Zdrój, Międzylesie, Radków 14
Świdnica County
powiat świdnicki
742.89 157,178 Świdnica Świebodzice, Strzegom, Żarów, Jaworzyna Śląska 8
Wrocław County
powiat wrocławski
1116.15 148,663 Wrocław* Sobótka, Kąty Wrocławskie, Siechnice 9
Oleśnica County
powiat oleśnicki
1049.74 107,090 Oleśnica Syców, Twardogóra, Bierutów, Międzybórz 8
Lubin County
powiat lubiński
711.99 106,211 Lubin Ścinawa 4
Dzierżoniów County
powiat dzierżoniowski
478.34 101,118 Dzierżoniów Bielawa, Gola Dzierżoniowska, Niemcza, Pieszyce, Piława Górna 7
Bolesławiec County
powiat bolesławiecki
1303.26 90,108 Bolesławiec Nowogrodziec 6
Zgorzelec County
powiat zgorzelecki
838.11 89,612 Zgorzelec Bogatynia, Pieńsk, Zawidów, Węgliniec 7
Głogów County
powiat głogowski
443.06 89,319 Głogów 6
Trzebnica County
powiat trzebnicki
1025.55 85,092 Trzebnica Oborniki Śląskie, Żmigród, Prusice 6
Oława County
powiat oławski
523.73 76,723 Oława Jelcz-Laskowice 4
Ząbkowice Śląskie County
powiat ząbkowicki
801.75 65,104 Ząbkowice Śląskie Ziębice, Złoty Stok, Bardo 7
Jelenia Góra County
powiat jeleniogórski
628.21 63,639 Jelenia Góra* Kowary, Szklarska Poręba, Piechowice, Karpacz 9
Polkowice County
powiat polkowicki
779.93 62,948 Polkowice Chocianów, Przemków 6
Wałbrzych County
powiat wałbrzyski
430.22 55,820 Wałbrzych* Boguszów-Gorce, Głuszyca, Szczawno-Zdrój, Jedlina-Zdrój, Mieroszów 9
Legnica County
powiat legnicki
744.60 55,318 Legnica* Chojnów, Prochowice 8
Środa Śląska County
powiat średzki
703.68 54,646 Środa Śląska 5
Lubań County
powiat lubański
428.30 54,493 Lubań Olszyna, Leśna, Świeradów-Zdrój 7
Jawor County
powiat jaworski
581.25 50,315 Jawor Bolków 6
Wołów County
powiat wołowski
675.00 46,914 Wołów Brzeg Dolny 3
Lwówek Śląski County
powiat lwówecki
709.94 45,975 Lwówek Śląski Gryfów Śląski, Mirsk, Wleń, Lubomierz 5
Złotoryja County
powiat złotoryjski
575.45 43,719 Złotoryja Wojcieszów, Świerzawa 6
Strzelin County
powiat strzeliński
622.27 43,713 Strzelin Wiązów 5
Kamienna Góra County
powiat kamiennogórski
396.13 43,429 Kamienna Góra Lubawka 4
Milicz County
powiat milicki
715.01 37,003 Milicz 3
Góra County
powiat górowski
738.11 35,047 Góra Wąsosz 4
* seat not part of the county

Governors[edit]

Name Period
Witold Krochmal 4 January 1999 – 22 October 2001
Ryszard Nawrat 22 October 2001 – 21 March 2003
Stanisław Łopatowski 31 March 2003 – 21 December 2005
Krzysztof Grzelczyk 21 December 2005 – 29 November 2007
Rafał Jurkowlaniec 29 November 2007 – 1 December 2010
Aleksander Skorupa 28 December 2010 – 11 March 2014
Tomasz Smolarz 12 March 2014 – 8 December 2015
Paweł Hreniak 8 December 2015 – 11 November 2019
Jarosław Obremski 5 December 2019 – 22 December 2023
Maciej Awiżeń 22 December 2023 –

See also[edit]

References[edit]

.mw-parser-output .reflist{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em;list-style-type:decimal}.mw-parser-output .reflist .references{font-size:100%;margin-bottom:0;list-style-type:inherit}.mw-parser-output .reflist-columns-2{column-width:30em}.mw-parser-output .reflist-columns-3{column-width:25em}.mw-parser-output .reflist-columns{margin-top:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .reflist-columns ol{margin-top:0}.mw-parser-output .reflist-columns li{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .reflist-upper-alpha{list-style-type:upper-alpha}.mw-parser-output .reflist-upper-roman{list-style-type:upper-roman}.mw-parser-output .reflist-lower-alpha{list-style-type:lower-alpha}.mw-parser-output .reflist-lower-greek{list-style-type:lower-greek}.mw-parser-output .reflist-lower-roman{list-style-type:lower-roman}body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .reflist{column-gap:2em}

  1. ^ a b .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit;word-wrap:break-word}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation:target{background-color:rgba(0,127,255,0.133)}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free.id-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited.id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration.id-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription.id-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg”)right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#2C882D;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}html.skin-theme-clientpref-night .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{color:#18911F}html.skin-theme-clientpref-night .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error,html.skin-theme-clientpref-night .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{color:#f8a397}@media(prefers-color-scheme:dark){html.skin-theme-clientpref-os .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error,html.skin-theme-clientpref-os .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{color:#f8a397}html.skin-theme-clientpref-os .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{color:#18911F}}“Population. Size and structure and vital statistics in Poland by territorial division in 2019. As of 30th June”. stat.gov.pl. Statistics Poland. 15 October 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
  2. ^ “EU regions by GDP, Eurostat”. Retrieved 18 September 2023.
  3. ^ “Sub-national HDI – Subnational HDI – Global Data Lab”. globaldatalab.org. Radboud University Nijmegen. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  4. ^ Arkadiusz Belczyk,Tłumaczenie polskich nazw geograficznych na język angielski Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine [Translation of Polish Geographical Names into English], 2002–2006.
  5. ^ “Past and Present Regions of Poland – Lower Silesia”. Archived from the original on 20 July 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  6. ^ “Kresowianie nie mieli wyboru, musieli jechać na zachód, interview with Professor Grzegorz Hryciuk,”. wyborcza.pl (in Polish). 20 December 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2023.
  7. ^ Allen Kent, Harold Lancour, Jay E. Daily, Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, CRC Press, 1978, pg. 3, [1]
  8. ^ “Położenie”. dolnyslask.poland.com (in Polish). Retrieved 27 December 2023.
  9. ^ “Dolnośląskie (Lower Silesia)”. paih.gov.pl. Retrieved 27 December 2023.
  10. ^ “Dolnośląski Szlak Piwa i Wina”.
  11. ^ “Regional GDP per capita ranged from 30% to 263% of the EU average in 2018”. Eurostat.
  12. ^ Internet, JSK. “Delegatury Urzędu – Dolnośląski Urząd Wojewódzki”. Archived from the original on 31 May 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2017.

External links[edit]

.mw-parser-output .side-box{margin:4px 0;box-sizing:border-box;border:1px solid #aaa;font-size:88%;line-height:1.25em;background-color:#f9f9f9;display:flow-root}.mw-parser-output .side-box-abovebelow,.mw-parser-output .side-box-text{padding:0.25em 0.9em}.mw-parser-output .side-box-image{padding:2px 0 2px 0.9em;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .side-box-imageright{padding:2px 0.9em 2px 0;text-align:center}@media(min-width:500px){.mw-parser-output .side-box-flex{display:flex;align-items:center}.mw-parser-output .side-box-text{flex:1}}@media(min-width:720px){.mw-parser-output .side-box{width:238px}.mw-parser-output .side-box-right{clear:right;float:right;margin-left:1em}.mw-parser-output .side-box-left{margin-right:1em}}



Comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *