Kerman province

Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct,.mw-parser-output .geo-inline-hidden{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}30°17′27″N 57°04′04″E / 30.2907°N 57.0679°E / 30.2907; 57.0679
Province of Iran

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Province in Region 5, Iran

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Kerman province
Persian: استان کرمان
Bam Fortress (2016)

Bam Fortress (2016)
Location of Kerman province within Iran

Location of Kerman province within Iran
Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct,.mw-parser-output .geo-inline-hidden{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}30°17′27″N 57°04′04″E / 30.2907°N 57.0679°E / 30.2907; 57.0679
Country Iran
Region Region 5
Capital Kerman
Counties 25
Government

 • Governor-general Mohammad-Mahdi Fadakar
 • MPs of Assembly of Experts 1 Ahmad Khatami
2 Aman-Allah Alimoradi
3 Mohammad Bahrami Khoshkar
 • Representative of the Supreme Leader Hasan Alidadi Soleimani
Area

 • Total 183,285 km2 (70,767 sq mi)
Elevation

192 m (630 ft)
Population

 (2016)[1]
 • Total 3,164,718
 • Density 17/km2 (45/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+03:30 (IRST)
ISO 3166 code IR-08
Main language(s) Persian
HDI (2017) 0.778[2]
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Website www.gov.kr.ir

Kerman province (Persian: استان کرمان, Ostān-e Kermān) is the largest of the 31 provinces of Iran. It is in the southeast of Iran, with its capital in the city of Kerman. In 2014 it was placed in Region 5.[3] Mentioned in ancient times as the Achaemenid satrapy of Carmania,[4] Kerman province has an area of 183,285 km2 (70,767 sq mi), encompassing nearly 11% of the land area of Iran.[5]

At the 2006 census 2006, the population of the province was 2,584,834 in 612,996 households.[6] The 2011 census recorded a population of 2,938,988 people (1,482,339 male and 1,456,649 female) in 785,747 households. Urban areas accounted for 1,684,982 people, whereas 1,242,344 lived in rural vicinities; 6,082 were non-residents.[7] By the 2016 census, the population had increased to 3,164,718 in 932,721 households. The capital city of Kerman, with a population of 537,718, comprises about 29% of the provincial urban population of 1.85 million, being the most developed and largest city of the province.[1]

The population of Kerman province includes the majority Fars and many Iranian ethnicities such as Lor, Kurd, Lak, Afshar-Turk, Jebal-Barezi, Zartoshti, Baluch, Larestani, Bandari, Pishdar and Ghassemlou.

Geography[edit]

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The altitudes and heights of the province are the continuation of the central mountain ranges of Iran. They extend from the volcanic folds beginning in Azerbaijan and, by branching out in the central plateau of Iran, terminate in Baluchestan. These mountain ranges have brought about vast plains in the province. The Bashagard and Kuhbonan Mountains are the highest in this region and include peaks such as Toghrol, Aljerd, Palvar, Sirach, Abareq and Tahrood. Other ranges that stretch out from Yazd to Kerman and Challeh-ye-Jazmoorian include high peaks like Hazaran which is 4,501 meters above sea level (ASL), Kuh-e Shah 4,402 meters ASL, Joupar, Bahr Aseman and Khabr mountain in Khabr National Park and others.

Most of the province is largely steppe or sandy desert, although there are some oases where dates, oranges (said to be the best in Iran), and pistachios are cultivated. In antiquity “Carmanian” wine was famed for its quality [Strabo XV.2.14 (cap. 726)]. The province is dependent on qanats (underground water channels) for its irrigation. In the central parts, Mount Hezar is the highest peak, 4501 meters above sea level.

Kerman is prone to natural disasters. A recent flood for example, unearthed the archeological ancient city of Jiroft, in the south of Kerman province. Arg-é Bam on the other hand, the world’s largest adobe structure, was destroyed in an earthquake in December 2003. On February 22, 2005, a major earthquake killed hundreds of residents in the town of Zarand and several nearby villages in north Kerman.

History[edit]

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Bronze flag, Shahdad Kerman, Iran, 3rd millennium BC

According to a text from the 8th century commontly attributed to the Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi, present-day Kerman province was situated in the southern quarter of the Sasanian Empire. The main city of the region from the Sasanian era to the 10th century was Sirjan.[8]

Early Muslim geographers considered the area as part of the hot climatic zone and the mountainous interior as home of predatory people including the Kufečs (or Kofejān). Hamdallah Mustawfi stated that predatory beasts roamed the area which by then had undergone forestation.[8]

In the 13th century it came under the rule of the Qutlugh-Khanids founded by ethnic Khitans, than under the Mongol empire. It was under the Timurid empire in 15th century.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Kerman province population history
Administrative Divisions 2006[6] 2011[7] 2016[1]
Anar County1 35,295 36,897
Anbarabad County 113,751 85,942 82,438
Arzuiyeh County2 41,979 38,510
Baft County 138,847 75,940 84,103
Bam County 277,835 195,603 228,241
Bardsir County 84,543 73,738 81,983
Fahraj County3 68,038 67,096
Faryab County1 34,417 34,000
Gonbaki County4
Jazmurian County5
Jiroft County 181,300 277,748 308,858
Kahnuj County 102,269 86,290 95,848
Kerman County 654,052 722,484 738,724
Kuhbanan County 24,465 21,721 21,205
Manujan County 63,270 64,528 65,705
Narmashir County3 58,229 54,228
Qaleh Ganj County 69,008 76,376 76,495
Rabor County2 34,392 35,362
Rafsanjan County 291,417 287,921 311,214
Ravar County 38,539 40,295 43,198
Rigan County3 66,335 88,410
Rudbar-e Jonubi County 86,747 104,421 105,992
Shahr-e Babak County 100,192 90,495 103,975
Sirjan County 239,455 267,697 324,103
Zarand County 119,144 129,104 138,133
Total 2,584,834 2,938,988 3,164,718
1Separated from Rafsanjan County[9][10]
2Separated from Baft County[11]
3Separated from Bam County[12][13]
4Separated from Rigan County[13]
5Separated from Rudbar-e Jonubi County[14]

Cities[edit]

According to the 2016 census, 1,858,587 people (over 58% of the population of Kerman province) live in the following cities: Aminshahr 4,413, Anar 15,532, Anbarabad 18,185, Anduhjerd 4,041, Arzuiyeh 6,868, Baft 34,517, Baghin 10,407, Bahreman 5,265, Balvard 3,534, Bam 127,396, Baravat 22,761, Bardsir 25,152, Bezenjan 4,517, Boluk 5,304, Chatrud 5,860, Darb-e Behesht 10,670, Dashtkar 3,234, Dehaj 5,045, Dow Sari 4,130, Ekhtiarabad 9,840, Fahraj 6,876, Faryab 4,863, Golbaf 9,205, Golzar 5,445, Gonbaki 7,210, Hamashahr 3,311, Hanza 1,452, Hojedk 1,007, Jebalbarez 6,750, Jiroft 130,429, Jowzam 3,436, Jupar 3,607, Kahnuj 52,624, Kazemabad 4,060, Kerman 537,718, Khanuk 2,628, Khatunabad 5,471, Khursand 8,252, Khvajeh Shahr 2,478, Kian Shahr 4,543, Koshkuiyeh 7,644, Kuhbanan 10,761, Lalehzar 4,429, Mahan 19,423, Manujan 15,634, Mardehek 2,870, Mes-e Sarcheshmeh 5,967, Mohammadabad 20,720, Mohiabad 3,930, Najafabad 20,164, Narmashir 5,222, Negar 7,600, Nezamshahr 2,426, Nowdezh 5,562, Qaleh Ganj 13,169, Pariz 8,005, Rabor 13,263, Rafsanjan 161,909, Ravar 22,729, Rayen 10,286, Reyhan Shahr 4,580, Rudbar 14,747, Safayyeh 2,478, Shahdad 5,217, Shahr-e Babak 51,620, Sirjan 199,704, Yazdan Shahr 5,607, Zangiabad 8,568, Zarand 60,370, Zeh-e Kalut 6,835, and Zeydabad 9,112.[1]

Most populous cities[edit]

The following sorted table, lists the most populous cities in Kerman.[1]

Rank City County Population
1 Kerman Kerman 537,718
2 Sirjan Sirjan 199,704
3 Rafsanjan Rafsanjan 161,909
4 Jiroft Jiroft 130,429
5 Bam Bam 127,396
6 Zarand Zarand 60,370
7 Kahnuj Kahnuj 52,624
8 Shahr-e Babak Shahr-e Babak 51,620
9 Baft Baft 34,517
10 Bardsir Bardsir 25,152

Language[edit]

The main languages of Kerman province are Persian and Garmsiri. Smaller languages include Achomi, Turkic dialects and a Median-type dialect spoken by the Jewish and Zoroastrian communities.[15]

The Persian varieties can be considered one single Kermani accent and they are sufficiently close to Standard Persian which they share intelligibility with.[15]

Economy[edit]

As of 1920, the province was known for the quality of its caraway.[16] Today, Kerman is where a large portion of Iran’s auto industry is based. Sirjan, a specially designated economic zone, is considered a passageway for transfer of imported commercial goods from the south (through the Persian Gulf). Arg e Jadid, is another specially designated economic zone of Iran, located in Kerman province. Furthermore, Kerman province is famous for its abundance of pistachio fields both in the city itself and surrounding ones such as Rafsanjan, Ravar and Nooq.

Malek Mosque, Kerman, Iran.

The Gol Gohar mine, the largest iron mine in Iran,[17] is located in Kerman province.[18]: 105 

Education[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Kerman province contains the following universities:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  1. ^ a b c d e .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit;word-wrap:break-word}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation:target{background-color:rgba(0,127,255,0.133)}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free.id-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited.id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration.id-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription.id-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg”)right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#2C882D;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}html.skin-theme-clientpref-night .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{color:#18911F}html.skin-theme-clientpref-night .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error,html.skin-theme-clientpref-night .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{color:#f8a397}@media(prefers-color-scheme:dark){html.skin-theme-clientpref-os .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error,html.skin-theme-clientpref-os .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{color:#f8a397}html.skin-theme-clientpref-os .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{color:#18911F}}“Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1395 (2016)”. AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 08. Archived from the original (Excel) on 20 October 2020. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  2. ^ “Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab”. hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  3. ^ “همشهری آنلاین-استان‌های کشور به ۵ منطقه تقسیم شدند (Provinces were divided into 5 regions)”. Hamshahri Online (in Persian). 22 June 2014. Archived from the original on 23 June 2014.
  4. ^ “CARMANIA”. iranicaonline.org.
  5. ^ http://www.sci.org.ir/content/userfiles/_sci_en/sci_en/sel/year85/f1/CS_01_4.HTM[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ a b “Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)”. AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 08. Archived from the original (Excel) on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  7. ^ a b “Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1390 (2011)” (Excel). Iran Data Portal (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 08. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  8. ^ a b Bosworth, C. E. (2013). “KERMAN v. HISTORY FROM THE ISLAMIC CONQUEST TO THE COMING OF THE MONGOLS”. Iranica Online.
  9. ^ Davoudi, Parviz (17 June 2009). “Anar County was added to the country”. Tabnak (in Persian). Ministry of Interior, Council of Ministers. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  10. ^ Rahimi, Mohammad Reza (8 February 2011). “Faryab County was added to the map of country divisions”. Islamic Republic News Agency (in Persian). Ministry of Interior, Board of Ministers. Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  11. ^ Rahimi, Mohamad Reza (9 April 2011). “Arzuiyeh County was added to the map of country divisions, with some changes in the geography of the country”. DOLAT (in Persian). Ministry of Interior, Council of Ministers. Archived from the original on 27 August 2018. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  12. ^ Rahimi, Mohammadreza (21 September 2013). “Letter of approval regarding country divisions in Kerman province”. Qavanin (in Persian). Ministry of Interior, Council of Ministers. Archived from the original on 5 July 2023. Retrieved 5 July 2023.
  13. ^ a b Mokhbar, Mohammad (27 May 2023). “Approval letter regarding the country divisions of Kerman province”. DOTIC (in Persian). Ministry of Interior, Council of Ministers. Archived from the original on 27 June 2023. Retrieved 4 July 2023.
  14. ^ Mokhbar, Mohammad (24 December 1401). “Letter of approval regarding the country divisions of Kerman province”. Qavanin (in Persian). Ministry of Interior, Council of Ministers. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  15. ^ a b Borjian, Habib (2017). “KERMAN xvi. LANGUAGES”. Iranica Online. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  16. ^ Sykes, Percy (1921). A History of Persia. London: Macmillan and Company. p. 75.
  17. ^ Assari, Amin (2019). “Defining hydrogeology of the Gohar-Zamin open pit mine, Iran: a case study in a hard-rock aquifer”. Hydrogeology Journal. 27: 1479–95. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
  18. ^ Bagherian, A.; Shahriar, K. (2003). “Slope Stability at Gol-E-Gohar Iron Mine” (PDF). 18″‘ International Mining Congress and Exhibition of Turkey: 105–12. Retrieved 23 February 2023.

External links[edit]

Media related to Kerman Province at Wikimedia Commons



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